My mother was murdered by what I call corporate and political homicide i.e. FOR PROFIT! she died from a rare phenotype of CJD i.e. the Heidenhain Variant of Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease i.e. sporadic, simply meaning from unknown route and source. I have simply been trying to validate her death DOD 12/14/97 with the truth. There is a route, and there is a source. There are many here in the USA. WE must make CJD and all human TSE, of all age groups 'reportable' Nationally and Internationally, with a written CJD questionnaire asking real questions pertaining to route and source of this agent. Friendly fire has the potential to play a huge role in the continued transmission of this agent via the medical, dental, and surgical arena. We must not flounder any longer. ...TSS
Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease with Paralysis of the Unilateral Vocal Cord and Soft Palate
Jun Hasegawa1), Yuuri Okumura1)2), Etsuko Osumi3), Hideaki Tago4), Yukio Katori2) and Toshimitsu Kobayashi2)
1) Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Public Soma General Hospital
2) Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine
3) Department of Neurology, Miyagi National Hospital
4) Department of Neurology, Ishibashi Hospital
(Received July 19, 2011)
(Revision accepted for publication November 5, 2011)
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a progressive disease that is characterized by the accumulation of abnormal prion-like proteins in the central nervous system. The cerebral cortex is primarily affected in CJD, leading to spongiform changes and dementia. To date, there have been no reported cases of CJD, with local neuroparalysis discovered at an early stage of the disease. Here, we describe a patient who presented unilateral vocal cord and soft palate paralysis before the progression of CJD. After developing forgetfulness 6 months ago, a 76-year-old woman was presented at department of Otorhinolaryngology in a general hospital for recently developed hoarseness and dysphagia. In the oral and laryngeal endoscopic findings, unilateral paralysis of the vocal cord and soft palate was noted. On videofluorography, the larynx failed to elevate straight on swallowing. The right tongue pharyngeal wall was lax, and some contrast agent was retained in the lower right piriform sinus. The paralysis was thought to be due to the glossopharyngeal nerve or vagal nerve damage, which was caused by peripheral nerve injury or infranuclear palsy. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed high signals in the cerebral cortical area (a signature feature of CJD). The patient died 2.5 years after the onset of illness. The patient was diagnosed as probable sporadic CJD. Since we could not detect any peripheral organic findings that could cause the paralysis, we suspect that CJD is responsible for the paralysis. In treating CJD patients with neurological signs, exclusive investigation is required to obtain a more detailed picture of the disease.
EFSA Journal 2011 The European Response to BSE: A Success Story
This is an interesting editorial about the Mad Cow Disease debacle, and it's ramifications that will continue to play out for decades to come ;
Monday, October 10, 2011
EFSA Journal 2011 The European Response to BSE: A Success Story
EFSA and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) recently delivered a scientific opinion on any possible epidemiological or molecular association between TSEs in animals and humans (EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ) and ECDC, 2011). This opinion confirmed Classical BSE prions as the only TSE agents demonstrated to be zoonotic so far but the possibility that a small proportion of human cases so far classified as "sporadic" CJD are of zoonotic origin could not be excluded. Moreover, transmission experiments to non-human primates suggest that some TSE agents in addition to Classical BSE prions in cattle (namely L-type Atypical BSE, Classical BSE in sheep, transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME) and chronic wasting disease (CWD) agents) might have zoonotic potential.
USA cases of dpCJD rising with 24 cases so far in 2010
please be aware, i have termed this strange strain of 'diagnosis pending creutzfeldt jakob disease' as 'dpCJD', what ever that is suppose to mean. how many more years, decades, are we going to have to flounder for them to establish another name for the same disease ?
5 Includes 28 cases in which the diagnosis is pending, and 17 inconclusive cases;
6 Includes 28 (24 from 2010) cases with type determination pending in which the diagnosis of vCJD has been excluded
IDIOPATHIC BRAIN STEM NEURONAL CHROMATOLYSIS AND HIPPOCAMPAL SCLEROSIS
(VET REC 1992, M Jeffrey, J W Wilesmith p359-362)
1. The disease title is comlex and invites the press to coin a new one (such as BSE II, MAD COW II, or Son of BSE). It is suggested for now that it is called a brain disorder or brain dgeneration (BD).
BD - THE LINE TO TAKE
2. Disease clinically similar to BSE but pathologically distinct. BD is NOT a form of BSE.
page 9 of 14 ;30. The Committee noted that the results were unusual. the questioned whether there could be coincidental BSE infection or contamination with scrapie. Dr. Tyrell noted that the feeling of the committee was that this did not represent a new agent but it was important to be prepared to say something publicly about these findings. A suggested line to take was that these were scientifically unpublishable results but in line with the policy of openness they would be made publicly available and further work done to test their validity. Since the BSE precautions were applied to IBNC cases, human health was protected. Further investigations should be carried out on isolations from brains of IBNC cases with removal of the brain and subsequent handling under strict conditions to avoid the risk of any contamination.31. Mr. Bradley informed the Committee that the CVO had informed the CMO about the IBNC results and the transmission from retina and he, like the Committee was satisfied that the controls already in place or proposed were adequate. ...
6. Trouble has been brewing for some time. Dr Collinge is lobbying hard, and threatening to go to the media, claiming Dr Will is blocking his research...
9. ...There are also results to be made available shortly (1) concerning a farmer with CJD who had BSE animals, (2) on the possible transmissibility of Alzheimers and (3) a CMO letter on prevention of iatrogenic CJD transmission in neurosurgery, all of which will serve to increase media interest. ...
[Terry S. Singeltary Sr. has added the following comment:
"According to the World Health Organisation, the future public health threat of vCJD in the UK and Europe and potentially the rest of the world is of concern and currently unquantifiable. However, the possibility of a significant and geographically diverse vCJD epidemic occurring over the next few decades cannot be dismissed.
WASHINGTON, Oct. 21 (UPI) -- French researchers have ruled out the human form of mad cow disease in a deceased California man, even though they did not conduct the critical test widely regarded as the only way to determine precisely the nature of his disease, United Press International has learned.
The case of Patrick Hicks, who died last November from his condition, has remained murky from the beginning. Dr. Ron Bailey, of Riverside, Calif., the man's neurologist, had suspected the 49-year-old Hicks of having contracted variant Creutzfeldt Jakob disease -- a fatal, brain-wasting illness humans can contract from eating beef products contaminated with the mad cow pathogen -- and both he and the family wanted an autopsy conducted to determine if Hicks had succumbed to the disorder.
Bailey became concerned that Hicks might have contracted vCJD because he initially had exhibited psychiatric symptoms, his illness appears to have lasted for more than one year and he showed normal brain-wave patterns via EEGs until the late stages -- all consistent with the disease. In addition, Hicks's relatively young age raised concerns, because nearly all of the more than 150 cases of vCJD detected worldwide have occurred in people under age 55.
The first hint of oddness began when, according to both Hicks's brother and mother, a team of six doctors, who they suspect were with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta, visited Patrick last October while he was still alive and under care at Loma Linda University Medical Center in Loma Linda, Calif.
They said they were asked to leave when the doctors arrived to examine Patrick.
CDC officials would not confirm to UPI whether they had investigated the case, but the agency's policy does require examining all suspected cases of vCJD in anyone under 55.
The family also said Loma Linda refused to released Hicks's medical records to them.
The oddities continued after Hicks's death. Bailey found it almost impossible to get an autopsy conducted on Hicks, the only way to determine conclusively whether he had variant or sporadic CJD -- a version of the disease not related to mad cow. One county coroner's office referred him to another and both refused to conduct the procedure, he said.
Then, the National Prion Disease Pathology Surveillance Center in Cleveland, Ohio -- which was established by the CDC to investigate potential vCJD cases in the United States -- dispatched a mobile autopsy company called 1-800-Autopsy, but the company failed to follow the center's protocol and did not collect frozen sections of brain, which are required for tests to determine whether the disease is vCJD or sCJD. Instead, the autopsy company fixed the entire brain in formalin.
The NPDPSC, however, considers the collection of frozen brain tissue essential to distinguishing vCJD from other forms of CJD.
"Only frozen brain tissue examination definitely confirms or excludes the diagnosis of prion disease and provides the information to identify the type of prion disease," the center's Web site says. Prions are abnormal proteins thought to play a role in causing vCJD and sCJD.
The problem raised enough concern that both Bailey and Hicks's family sought a second opinion.
Experts had told them that animal-injection studies could be done with formalin-fixed tissue, so the family arranged to have a sample of Patrick's brain sent to Dr. Jean Jacques Hauw at the Laboratoire De Neuropathologie at the Groupe Hospitalier Pitie-Salpetriere in Paris, who they thought had agreed to do the studies.
The NPDPSC, however, delayed sending the sample to France for two months after the family's request last March. During the delay, Pierluigi Gambetti, the NPDPSC's director, sent a letter to Hicks's wife.
"We can definitely rule out the diagnosis of variant CJD," the letter stated.
Gambetti's strong conclusion sounded strange to Bailey, because the NPDPSC had not conducted further tests since January, when they had said vCJD was unlikely but that they were unable to rule it out entirely.
After examining the brain tissue, Hauw's team told the family the disease was consistent with sCJD, but to date they have not explained why they did not conduct the animal-injection studies -- the family's reason for sending samples of his brain to France.
Asked the reasons for not following the family's wishes and conducting the animal studies, Hauw told UPI, "I cannot answer your question," citing French regulations that prohibited him from providing information about a specific patient.
He did say, however, that "animal injection is not needed for the routine diagnosis of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and its various variants, at least in France and in the United Kingdom."
That may be true, but it remains unclear why he accepted the case in the first place, knowing that is what the family wanted.
Moreover, this was not a "routine diagnosis." If Hicks suffered from vCJD, he potentially would have been the first person in the United States to have acquired the disease domestically, a development with significant domestic and international ramifications.
In addition, other experts, such as Dr. Laura Manuelidis, section chief of surgery in the neuropathology department at Yale University, have said the only way to know conclusively whether the disease is due to sCJD or vCJD is through animal-injection studies.
"From what I gather, the result was merely rubber stamped," Bailey told UPI. "I guess we will never really know for sure."
The handling of the case is noteworthy, because the NPDPSC currently is investigating nine potential sCJD cases in Idaho. Experts suspect some of those cases could be vCJD.
Bailey and some patient advocates said they are now skeptical of the NPDPSC's behavior.
"How could my experience with the Hicks case ... and the interaction with NPDPSC not lessen my confidence?" Bailey asked. "I anticipate that all of the Idaho cluster of CJD patients will turn out to have sCJD. I cannot for a minute see their results indicating anything but this. After all, if any patient were to have vCJD, it would have been Patrick Hicks. The results of NPDPSC are not definitive in excluding Hicks as not having vCJD. There certainly will always be that question in my mind."
Terry Singletary, a patient advocate whose mother died of a form of the disease called Heidenhain variant, told UPI he likewise had lost confidence in the NPDPSC.
"I do not trust them," Singletary said. "It's all going to be sporadic. This is the way they want it. They do not want to find out all the routes and sources of this agent."
Both vCJD and mad cow disease are politically sensitive issues because they can impact international trade. Dozens of nations closed their borders to American beef after a lone U.S. cow tested positive for the disease in 2003, resulting in more than $4.7 billion in losses for the industry, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture delayed doing confirmatory tests for seven months on what turned out to be a second case of mad cow.
The NPDPSC did not respond to UPI's phone call requesting comment about the Idaho cases. The CDC referred UPI to Idaho officials.
Of the nine Idaho cases, three people have tested positive for a CJD-like illness, but officials are conducting further tests to determine whether the disease is sCJD. Two others tested negative and four were buried without autopsies.
The cases could just be a statistical fluke, but the state averages about 1.2 sCJD cases per year and has never had more than three in a single year. The disease is rare and generally is thought to occur at the rate of one case per million people.
Several CJD clusters in other states have far exceeded that rate, however. These included:
--southern New Jersey (2000-2003),
--Lehigh, Pa. (1986-90),
--Allentown, Pa. (1989-92),
--Tampa, Fla. (1996-97),
--Oregon (2001-02), and
--Nassau County, N.Y. (1999-2000).
Some of the clusters involved as many as 18 deaths, and ranged from a rate of four to eight cases per million people.
A group of J.P. Morgan analysts issued an advisory last year on the impact the clusters could have on the beef industry, and said that some of the cases could be due to vCJD.
"The existence of clusters raises the question of 'contamination' or 'infection,' and also raises the hypothesis that rather than cases of sCJD, these might have been cases of vCJD," the advisory said. "Given that sCJD occurs randomly in one out of 1 million cases, it is a statistical rarity to find an sCJD cluster -- let alone six."
If that assessment is accurate, another cluster in Idaho would be even more unlikely.
Another possibility is some of the Idaho cases could be due to chronic wasting disease, which is similar to mad cow disease and currently is epidemic among deer and elk in several states, including Idaho's neighbors Wyoming and Utah.
No human cases of CWD have ever been confirmed, but the disease has been shown to infect human cells in a lab dish. Also, a team of researchers led by Jason Bartz of Creighton University in Omaha, Neb., report in the November issue of the Journal of Virology they had experimentally transmitted CWD to squirrel monkeys --the first reported transmission of CWD to primates.
If CWD is capable of infecting humans, it is unknown whether the resulting disease would resemble sCJD, vCJD or a novel disorder. If the disease looks like sCJD, cases could be going undetected or misdiagnosed.
Washington, DC, Mar. 24 (UPI) -- The National Institutes of Health may discard part or all of a rare collection that includes hundreds of human brain samples from patients that suffered from a disorder similar to mad cow disease -- unless another researcher or institution takes them on, United Press International has learned.
see full history of the day they almost destroyed all donated brains samples from CJD victims ;
3.56 A further difference in the transmission properties of the two diseases was the pattern of disease caused in the brains of experimental animals. Mice inoculated with scrapie material from geographically and temporally distinct sources were found to have variable brain lesions, whereas mice inoculated with BSE material similarly derived from different sources all had very similar patterns of disease. 30 These results showed that, unlike scrapie, only one strain of BSE was present in the inocula derived from different sources. As the current hypothesis suggested that scrapie had transmitted to cattle at a number of geographically separate sites, it might have been expected that several strains of BSE would have been evident, given that over 20 strains of scrapie were known. Since 1996, strain-typing studies in mice have shown that the lesion profile produced by BSE is different to all known scrapie strains. 31
3.57 The experiment which might have determined whether BSE and scrapie were caused by the same agent (ie, the feeding of natural scrapie to cattle) was never undertaken in the UK. It was, however, performed in the USA in 1979, when it was shown that cattle inoculated with the scrapie agent endemic in the flock of Suffolk sheep at the United States Department of Agriculture in Mission, Texas, developed a TSE quite unlike BSE. 32 The findings of the initial transmission, though not of the clinical or neurohistological examination, were communicated in October 1988 to Dr Watson, Director of the CVL, following a visit by Dr Wrathall, one of the project leaders in the Pathology Department of the CVL, to the United States Department of Agriculture. 33 The results were not published at this point, since the attempted transmission to mice from the experimental cow brain had been inconclusive. The results of the clinical and histological differences between scrapie-affected sheep and cattle were published in 1995. Similar studies in which cattle were inoculated intracerebrally with scrapie inocula derived from a number of scrapie-affected sheep of different breeds and from different States, were carried out at the US National Animal Disease Centre. 34 The results, published in 1994, showed that this source of scrapie agent, though pathogenic for cattle, did not produce the same clinical signs of brain lesions characteristic of BSE.
3.58 There are several possible reasons why the experiment was not performed in the UK. It had been recommended by Sir Richard Southwood (Chairman of the Working Party on Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy) in his letter to the Permanent Secretary of MAFF, Mr (now Sir) Derek Andrews, on 21 June 1988, 35 though it was not specifically recommended in the Working Party Report or indeed in the Tyrrell Committee Report (details of the Southwood Working Party and the Tyrell Committee can be found in vol. 4: The Southwood Working Party, 1988-89 and vol. 11: Scientists after Southwood respectively). The direct inoculation of scrapie into calves was given low priority, because of its high cost and because it was known that it had already taken place in the USA. 36 It was also felt that the results of such an experiment would be hard to interpret. While a negative result would be informative, a positive result would need to demonstrate that when scrapie was transmitted to cattle, the disease which developed in cattle was the same as BSE. 37 Given the large number of strains of scrapie and the possibility that BSE was one of them, it would be necessary to transmit every scrapie strain to cattle separately, to test the hypothesis properly. Such an experiment would be expensive. Secondly, as measures to control the epidemic took hold, the need for the experiment from the policy viewpoint was not considered so urgent. It was felt that the results would be mainly of academic interest. 38
3.59 Nevertheless, from the first demonstration of transmissibility of BSE in 1988, the possibility of differences in the transmission properties of BSE and scrapie was clear. Scrapie was transmissible to hamsters, but by 1988 attempts to transmit BSE to hamsters had failed. Subsequent findings increased that possibility.
If the scrapie agent is generated from ovine DNA and thence causes disease in other species, then perhaps, bearing in mind the possible role of scrapie in CJD of humans (Davinpour et al, 1985), scrapie and not BSE should be the notifiable disease. ...
RE-CDC - INQUIRY ABOUT vCJD DEATH OF SLAUGHTER HOUSE WORKER IRMA LINDA ANDABLO
SEE these further comments, this time from the CDC on this CJD case. Seems they are oblivious. ...TSS
----- Original Message -----
From: Hammett, Teresa (CDC/OID/NCZVED)
Sent: Monday, May 24, 2010 11:10 AM
Subject: RE: TO CDC - INQUIRY ABOUT vCJD DEATH OF SLAUGHTER HOUSE WORKER IRMA LINDA ANDABLO
Dear Ms Shields,
We are not able to confirm knowledge of a specific CJD investigation or diagnosis for anyone due to reasons of confidentiality. I can tell you that all persons suspected of having CJD who are less than 55 years of age are a high priority for investigation by state health departments, CDC and the National Prion Disease Pathology Surveillance Center.
There are multiple surveillance methods in place to identify cases of CJD and variant CJD when such cases occur in the United States. The CDC monitors the trends and current incidence of CJD in the United States using several surveillance mechanisms. On a routine basis, CDC reviews the national multiple cause-of-death data taken from death certificates and compiled by the National Center for Health Statistics, CDC. In addition, CDC conducts follow-up review of clinical and neuropathology records of CJD decedents aged <55 years who are identified through the national mortality data analysis or reported by health care workers. This is the age group in which almost all of the vCJD cases worldwide have occurred to date. In 1996-97, CDC established, in collaboration with the American Association of Neuropathologists, the National Prion Disease Pathology Surveillance Center at Case Western Reserve University, which performs special state-of-the-art diagnostic tests for prion diseases, including post-mortem tests for vCJD. These tests are provided free of charge to all U.S. physicians. For more information about the center, visit its website at: http://www.cjdsurveillance.com. Currently, CDC works with selected state health departments on various enhanced CJD surveillance projects and education programs regarding the importance of autopsy to both the surveillance and diagnosis of CJD. In addition, CDC collects, reviews and when indicated, actively investigates specific reports by health care personnel or institutions in all states of possible iatrogenic CJD and variant CJD cases. Three cases of vCJD have been reported from the United States. By convention, variant CJD cases are ascribed to the country of initial symptom onset, regardless of where the exposure occurred. There is strong evidence that suggests that two of the three cases were exposed to the BSE agent in the United Kingdom and that the third was exposed while living in Saudi Arabia. Cases of classic CJD in persons less than 55 years of age do occur as either sporadic cases or due to inherited mutations of the prion protein gene. Classic CJD has nothing to do with exposure to beef as does variant CJD.
From: Helane Shields[SMTP:HSHIELDS@WORLDPATH.NET]
Sent: Friday, May 21, 2010 8:17:38 PM
To: NCID DVRD PRION (CDC)
Subject: TO CDC - INQUIRY ABOUT vCJD DEATH OF SLAUGHTER HOUSE WORKER IRMA LINDA ANDABLO Auto forwarded by a Rule
To CDC - Please advise if you have investigated or conducted an autopsy regarding the CJD or vCJD death of 38 year old slaughterhouse worker Irma Linda Andablo: I originally made this inquiry to USDA. They advised it should be directed to you. Please comment or state the position of the CDC with regard to the recent death of a 38-year old long time slaughterhouse worker from variant Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease ?
CDC STATED THAT ;
"Cases of classic CJD in persons less than 55 years of age do occur as either sporadic cases or due to inherited mutations of the prion protein gene. Classic CJD has nothing to do with exposure to beef as does variant CJD."
This is wrong. It has never been proven that 85% to 90% of all cases of human TSE i.e. sporadic Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease (CJD) is of a ''inherited mutations of the prion protein gene" and or that "Classic CJD has nothing to do with exposure to beef as does variant CJD", this is simply wishful thinking$
There is much more to this nightmare than the UKBSEnvCJD hamburger eating adolescents only theory. WE are missing the bigger picture, i.e. 85%+ of all the rest of the cases i.e. sporadic Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease, and all it's phenotypes, and they are mounting. sporadic CJD is NOT a single strain, but multiple strains of UNKNOWN origin. There are six documented strains of sporadic CJD, with UNKNOWN strains growing. please remember ;
USA sporadic CJD cases rising ;
18 January 2007 - Draft minutes of the SEAC 95 meeting (426 KB) held on 7 December 2006 are now available.
64. A member noted that at the recent Neuroprion meeting, a study was presented showing that in transgenic mice BSE passaged in sheep may be more virulent and infectious to a wider range of species than bovine derived BSE. Other work presented suggested that BSE and bovine amyloidotic spongiform encephalopathy (BASE) MAY BE RELATED. A mutation had been identified in the prion protein gene in an AMERICAN BASE CASE THAT WAS SIMILAR IN NATURE TO A MUTATION FOUND IN CASES OF SPORADIC CJD.
3:30 Transmission of the Italian Atypical BSE (BASE) in Humanized Mouse Models
Qingzhong Kong, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Pathology, Case Western Reserve University
Bovine Amyloid Spongiform Encephalopathy (BASE) is an atypical BSE strain discovered recently in Italy, and similar or different atypical BSE cases were also reported in other countries. The infectivity and phenotypes of these atypical BSE strains in humans are unknown. In collaboration with Pierluigi Gambetti, as well as Maria Caramelli and her co-workers, we have inoculated transgenic mice expressing human prion protein with brain homogenates from BASE or BSE infected cattle. Our data shows that about half of the BASE-inoculated mice became infected with an average incubation time of about 19 months; in contrast, none of the BSE-inoculated mice appear to be infected after more than 2 years.
***These results indicate that BASE is transmissible to humans and suggest that BASE is more virulent than classical BSE in humans.***
There is a growing number of human CJD cases, and they were presented last week in San Francisco by Luigi Gambatti(?) from his CJD surveillance collection. He estimates that it may be up to 14 or 15 persons which display selectively SPRPSC and practically no detected RPRPSC proteins.
2008 - 2010 The statistical incidence of CJD cases in the United States has been revised to reflect that there is one case per 9000 in adults age 55 and older. Eighty-five percent of the cases are sporadic, meaning there is no known cause at present.
CJD USA RISING, with UNKNOWN PHENOTYPE ; 5 Includes 41 cases in which the diagnosis is pending, and 17 inconclusive cases; 6 Includes 46 cases with type determination pending in which the diagnosis of vCJD has been excluded.
CJD is a predominantly sporadic disorder but can also occur as a dominantly inherited or infective condition. Only one of the 26 most recent confirmed cases was identified as carrying a disease related mutation of the PRNP gene, none had identifiable iatrogenic exposure, and none resembled variant CJD. Thus 25 of the 26 cases appear to be sporadic cases. Sporadic CJD is distributed worldwide with a reported incidence of about one in a million per year. Raised awareness of the disease in recent years could account for an increase in reported cases of CJD, although neither an increase in the average age of patients nor more frequent recognition of CJD amongst residents of nursing homes (where dementing illness is prevalent and misdiagnosis might be expected) were seen in the Swiss cases. Moreover, improved ascertainment as an explanation for the observed increase would imply levels of under-reporting in countries other than Switzerland, which appear implausible. The authors of the Lancet report suggest that the rise in cases might be due to some form of unidentified iatrogenic transmission or to exposure to a zoonotic source of infection, though cases do not resemble variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD). The ongoing surveillance of CJD in Switzerland and the rest of Europe is essential to monitor the situation to see if this rise is sustained in Switzerland, and if a similar rise occurs in other countries (see http://www.eurocjd.ed.ac.uk).
Prion data suggest BSE link to sporadic CJD Declan Butler Predicting the number of cases of Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (CJD) in people as a result of transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) has just got more difficult.Whereas it was thought that BSE only caused a new form of the disease called variant CJD (vCJD), a study in mice from a team led by John Collinge at University College London suggests that it may also cause a disease indistinguishable from the commonest form of classical, or 'sporadic', CJD (E.
IF we look at sporadic incidence of CJD in UK from 1993 to 2003, the incidence rose from 37 in 1993 to 77 in 2003. THIS seems to show an increase to me? I do not understand the statement ; However, in the period following the first published description of vCJD in 1996, there was no increasing trend in the reported annual number of U.K. sporadic CJD deaths (52). IF we go further and look at some of the other documented BSE countries, you will the increase of sporadic CJD there as well ;
Swiss rise in CJD raises concerns over possible BSE link [LONDON] THE LANCET Plaque attack: Swiss patients have spongiform patterns in the brain typical of sporadic CJD. The number of people dying from Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) has risen sharply in Switzerland -- sparking fears of a possible link with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). BSE is thought to be the cause of a distinctive form of the brain-wasting disease known as variant CJD. The Swiss cases, in contrast, are standard 'sporadic' CJD. Each year between 1997 and 2000, no more than 11 Swiss people developed CJD. But 19 cases were reported in 2001, and seven were recorded in the first quarter of this year. This is some four times higher than the incidence elsewhere, reports a team led by Adriano Aguzzi of the University Hospital Zurich (M. Glatzel et al. Lancet 360, 139-141; 2002). The increase could be a mere statistical blip, or it may be due to increased awareness of the disease leading to more diagnoses. More disturbing is the possibility that the cases are linked to the consumption of BSE-infected meat products -- which would mean that the BSE agent can cause two distinct forms of CJD. Possible links between the Swiss CJD cases and BSE will now be explored by strain-typing experiments in which the disease is transmitted to mice. These tests will take at least a year to complete. "It's the best way to establish or exclude any suspected link," says Moira Bruce of the UK Institute for Animal Health's Neuropathogenesis Unit in Edinburgh.
Experiences in England and Switzerland -- two countries that discovered mad cow disease in their cattle -- have heightened concerns about the possibility some cases of sporadic CJD are due to consuming mad-cow-tainted beef. Both countries have reported increases in sporadic CJD since mad cow was first detected in British herds in 1986. Switzerland discovered last year its CJD rate was twice that of any other country in the world. Switzerland had been seeing about eight to 11 cases per year from 1997 to 2000. Then the incidence more than doubled, to 19 cases in 2001 and 18 cases in 2002.
Mouse model sheds new light on human prion disease snip... Professor John Collinge said We are not saying that all or even most cases of sporadic CJD are as a result of BSE exposure, but some more recent cases may be the incidence of sporadic CJD has shown an upward trend in the UK over the last decade. While most of this apparent increase may be because doctors are now more aware of CJD and better at diagnosing it, serious consideration should be given to a proportion of this rise being BSE-related. Switzerland, which has had a substantial BSE epidemic, has noted a sharp recent increase in sporadic CJD.
BSE prions propagate as either variant CJD-like or sporadic CJD-like prion strains in transgenic mice expressing human prion protein
Emmanuel A. Asante, Jacqueline M. Linehan, Melanie Desbruslais, Susan Joiner, Ian Gowland, Andrew L. Wood, Julie Welch, Andrew F. Hill, Sarah E. Lloyd, Jonathan D.F. Wadsworth, and John Collinge1 MRC Prion Unit and Department of Neurodegenerative Disease, Institute of Neurology, University College, Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK 1Corresponding author e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.orgReceived August 1, 2002; Revised September 24, 2002; Accepted October 17, 2002. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC136957/?tool=pubmed The EMBO Journal (2002) 21, 6358 - 6366 doi:10.1093/emboj/cdf653
BSE prions propagate as either variant CJD-like or sporadic CJD-like prion strains in transgenic mice expressing human prion protein
Emmanuel A. Asante1, Jacqueline M. Linehan1, Melanie Desbruslais1, Susan Joiner1, Ian Gowland1, Andrew L. Wood1, Julie Welch1, Andrew F. Hill1, Sarah E. Lloyd1, Jonathan D.F. Wadsworth1 and John Collinge1 1.MRC Prion Unit and Department of Neurodegenerative Disease, Institute of Neurology, University College, Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK Correspondence to: John Collinge, E-mail: email@example.com Received 1 August 2002; Accepted 17 October 2002; Revised 24 September 2002
Variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (vCJD) has been recognized to date only in individuals homozygous for methionine at PRNP codon 129. Here we show that transgenic mice expressing human PrP methionine 129, inoculated with either bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) or variant CJD prions, may develop the neuropathological and molecular phenotype of vCJD, consistent with these diseases being caused by the same prion strain. Surprisingly, however, BSE transmission to these transgenic mice, in addition to producing a vCJD-like phenotype, can also result in a distinct molecular phenotype that is indistinguishable from that of sporadic CJD with PrPSc type 2. These data suggest that more than one BSE-derived prion strain might infect humans; it is therefore possible that some patients with a phenotype consistent with sporadic CJD may have a disease arising from BSE exposure. Keywords:BSE, Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease, prion, transgenic
CONFIDENTIAL CONFIRMED CASE OF CJD IN A DAIRY FARMER
3. Neither Dr Will nor the CJD surveillance unit intend to disclose the existence of this case or make any comment at present unless it attracts media attention.
HUMAN CASE DETAILS CONFIDENTIAL
6. CJD IN FARMERS
The second annual report on CJD surveillance in the UK, which is about to be published, gives occupational history details of 29 definite and probable CJD cases recorded in people who had a history of employment at any time in particular occupational groups of potential significance for the occurrence of the disease. The 29 cases were amongst 95 diagnosed over a 3 year period: the other 66 cases did not fall into such occupational groups. These relevant details are:- MEDICAL/PARAMEDICAL/DENTISTRY 7 ANIMAL LABORATORY 1 PHARMACEUTICAL LABORATORY 0 RESEARCH LABORATORY 0 FARMERS/VETERINARY SURGEONS 7 BUTCHERS/ABATTOIR WORKERS/OCCUPATION INVOLVING DIRECT CONTACT WITH ANIMAL OR CARCASES 5 OCCUPATION INVOLVING ANIMAL PRODUCTS 9
Over a 5 year period, which is the time period on which the advice from Professor Smith and Dr. Gore was based, and assuming a population of 120,000 dairy farm workers, and an annual incidence of 1 per million cases of CJD in the general population, a DAIRY FARM WORKER IS 5 TIMES MORE LIKELY THAN an individual in the general population to develop CJD. Using the actual current annual incidence of CJD in the UK of 0.7 per million, this figure becomes 7.5 TIMES. 3. You will recall that the advice provided by Professor Smith in 1993 and by Dr. Gore this month used the sub-population of dairy farm workers who had had a case of BSE on their farms - 63,000, which is approximately half the number of dairy farm workers - as a denominator. If the above sums are repeated using this denominator population, taking an annual incidence in the general population of 1 per million the observed rate in this sub-population is 10 TIMES, and taking an annual incidence of 0.7 per million, IT IS 15 TIMES (THE ''WORST CASE'' SCENARIO) than that in the general population...
CHANGING SCIENCE TO FIT YOUR INDUSTRY NEEDS COVER-UP IN FULL MODE NOW
PROBLEM 7. The main findings in the case-control study were STATISTICALLY SIGNIFICANT ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN CONSUMPTION OF VEAL OR VENISON AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF CJD (INCREASED RISKS OF 2-13x). IP PS(L) wishes to probe this further we think it best to explain the matter VERBALLY. The problem is how to present the findings in this year's annual report in a way which avoids unnecessary public alarm and limits the scope for media scare stores. (or the facts...TSS)
A REVISED VERSION WHERE THE FOLLOWING WAS MADE TO BE REMOVED FROM SCIENTIFIC FINDINGS. ...TSS
''This year's findings show a number of associations but the strongest is for veal.'' A BIG LINE WAS DRAWN THROUGH THAT SENTENCE TO BE REMOVED DUE TO THE FOLLOWING. THIS IS THE NEXT SENTENCE ; ''This is of considerable concern given recent developments. In particular, Ministers will be particularly concerned about the European dimension given the recent troubles with the Germans.'' YOU can see the beginning of the ukbsenvCJD only theory beginning to unfold now.
full text of this ukbsenvcjd only conspiracy can be seen here. ...TSS
CJD IN AN INDIVIDUAL OCCUPATIONALLY EXPOSED TO BSE ii. on page 2 the sentence ''He had drunk pooled milk from the herd which included that from the affected animal'' will mislead the uninformed. It needs to be made clear that milk from a cow which is suspected to be affected with BSE cannot be drunk or added to the bulk milk produced by the rest of the herd. iii. in the final paragraph I suggest that the phrase ''and a causal link with BSE is at most conjectural'' BE DELETED: the first paragraph of the sentence would then stand as a clear statement that the CJD case was likely to have been a CHANCE PHENOMENON.
''DH is aware of a second case of CJD in a dairy farmer who has had BSE in his herd. We cannot comment on the details of the case, but we know of nothing to suggest this is anthing other than a sporadic case of CJD. .........
THE FARMER IS THOUGHT TO HAVE HAD AT LEAST TWO CASES OF BSE IN HIS HERD, which were diagnosed in 1992. The farmer is reported to have asssisted in calving and to have drunk milk from his herd. This does not suggest that this is anything other than a sporadic case of CJD. ...
Locally, they made quite an association with BSE, since she was a farmers wife on a farm that, atypically for that area of S Yorkshire, had several BSE cases. I was told the clinical and pathological pictures were typical of CJD.
now story changes from; SEAC concluded that, if the fourth case were confirmed, it would be worrying, especially as all four farmers with CJD would have had BSE cases on their farms. to; This is not unexpected... was another farmer expected?
14th International Congress on Infectious Diseases H-type and L-type Atypical BSE January 2010
(special pre-congress edition)
18.173 page 189
Experimental Challenge of Cattle with H-type and L-type Atypical BSE
A. Buschmann1, U. Ziegler1, M. Keller1, R. Rogers2, B. Hills3, M.H. Groschup1. 1Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Greifswald-Insel Riems, Germany, 2Health Canada, Bureau of Microbial Hazards, Health Products & Food Branch, Ottawa, Canada, 3Health Canada, Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy Secretariat, Ottawa, Canada
Background: After the detection of two novel BSE forms designated H-type and L-type atypical BSE the question of the pathogenesis and the agent distribution of these two types in cattle was fully open. From initial studies of the brain pathology, it was already known that the anatomical distribution of L-type BSE differs from that of the classical type where the obex region in the brainstem always displays the highest PrPSc concentrations. In contrast in L-type BSE cases, the thalamus and frontal cortex regions showed the highest levels of the pathological prion protein, while the obex region was only weakly involved.
Methods:We performed intracranial inoculations of cattle (five and six per group) using 10%brainstemhomogenates of the two German H- and L-type atypical BSE isolates. The animals were inoculated under narcosis and then kept in a free-ranging stable under appropriate biosafety conditions.At least one animal per group was killed and sectioned in the preclinical stage and the remaining animals were kept until they developed clinical symptoms. The animals were examined for behavioural changes every four weeks throughout the experiment following a protocol that had been established during earlier BSE pathogenesis studies with classical BSE.
Results and Discussion: All animals of both groups developed clinical symptoms and had to be euthanized within 16 months. The clinical picture differed from that of classical BSE, as the earliest signs of illness were loss of body weight and depression. However, the animals later developed hind limb ataxia and hyperesthesia predominantly and the head. Analysis of brain samples from these animals confirmed the BSE infection and the atypical Western blot profile was maintained in all animals. Samples from these animals are now being examined in order to be able to describe the pathogenesis and agent distribution for these novel BSE types.
Conclusions: A pilot study using a commercially avaialble BSE rapid test ELISA revealed an essential restriction of PrPSc to the central nervous system for both atypical BSE forms. A much more detailed analysis for PrPSc and infectivity is still ongoing.
14th ICID International Scientific Exchange Brochure - Final
Abstract Number: ISE.114
Session: International Scientific Exchange
Transmissible Spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) animal and human TSE in North America update October 2009
T. Singeltary Bacliff, TX, USA
Background: An update on atypical BSE and other TSE in North America. Please remember, the typical U.K. c-BSE, the atypical l-BSE (BASE), and h-BSE have all been documented in North America, along with the typical scrapie's, and atypical Nor-98 Scrapie, and to date, 2 different strains of CWD, and also TME. All these TSE in different species have been rendered and fed to food producing animals for humans and animals in North America (TSE in cats and dogs ?), and that the trading of these TSEs via animals and products via the USA and Canada has been immense over the years, decades.
Methods: 12 years independent research of available data
Results: I propose that the current diagnostic criteria for human TSEs only enhances and helps the spreading of human TSE from the continued belief of the UKBSEnvCJD only theory in 2009. With all the science to date refuting it, to continue to validate this old myth, will only spread this TSE agent through a multitude of potential routes and sources i.e. consumption, medical i.e., surgical, blood, dental, endoscopy, optical, nutritional supplements, cosmetics etc.
Conclusion: I would like to submit a review of past CJD surveillance in the USA, and the urgent need to make all human TSE in the USA a reportable disease, in every state, of every age group, and to make this mandatory immediately without further delay. The ramifications of not doing so will only allow this agent to spread further in the medical, dental, surgical arena's. Restricting the reporting of CJD and or any human TSE is NOT scientific. Iatrogenic CJD knows NO age group, TSE knows no boundaries. I propose as with Aguzzi, Asante, Collinge, Caughey, Deslys, Dormont, Gibbs, Gajdusek, Ironside, Manuelidis, Marsh, et al and many more, that the world of TSE Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy is far from an exact science, but there is enough proven science to date that this myth should be put to rest once and for all, and that we move forward with a new classification for human and animal TSE that would properly identify the infected species, the source species, and then the route.
Thursday, December 04, 2008 3:37 PM Subject: RE: re--Chronic Wating Disease (CWD) and Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathies (BSE): Public Health Risk Assessment
''IS the h-BSE more virulent than typical BSE as well, or the same as cBSE, or less virulent than cBSE?
'' Professor Kong reply ;
''As to the H-BSE, we do not have sufficient data to say one way or another, but we have found that H-BSE can infect humans. I hope we could publish these data once the study is complete. Thanks for your interest.''
Qingzhong Kong, PhD Associate Professor Department of Pathology Case Western Reserve University Cleveland, OH 44106 USA
Molecular Features of the Protease-resistant Prion Protein (PrPres) in H-type BSE
Western blot analyses of PrPres accumulating in the brain of BSE-infected cattle have demonstrated 3 different molecular phenotypes regarding to the apparent molecular masses and glycoform ratios of PrPres bands. We initially described isolates (H-type BSE) essentially characterized by higher PrPres molecular mass and decreased levels of the diglycosylated PrPres band, in contrast to the classical type of BSE. This type is also distinct from another BSE phenotype named L-type BSE, or also BASE (for Bovine Amyloid Spongiform Encephalopathy), mainly characterized by a low representation of the diglycosylated PrPres band as well as a lower PrPres molecular mass. Retrospective molecular studies in France of all available BSE cases older than 8 years old and of part of the other cases identified since the beginning of the exhaustive surveillance of the disease in 20001 allowed to identify 7 H-type BSE cases, among 594 BSE cases that could be classified as classical, L- or H-type BSE. By Western blot analysis of H-type PrPres, we described a remarkable specific feature with antibodies raised against the C-terminal region of PrP that demonstrated the existence of a more C-terminal cleaved form of PrPres (named PrPres#2 ), in addition to the usual PrPres form (PrPres #1). In the unglycosylated form, PrPres #2 migrates at about 14 kDa, compared to 20 kDa for PrPres #1. The proportion of the PrPres#2 in cattle seems to by higher compared to the PrPres#1. Furthermore another PK–resistant fragment at about 7 kDa was detected by some more N-terminal antibodies and presumed to be the result of cleavages of both N- and C-terminal parts of PrP. These singular features were maintained after transmission of the disease to C57Bl/6 mice. The identification of these two additional PrPres fragments (PrPres #2 and 7kDa band) reminds features reported respectively in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and in Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker (GSS) syndrome in humans.
Archive Number 20100405.1091 Published Date 05-APR-2010 Subject PRO/AH/EDR> Prion disease update 1010 (04)
[Terry S. Singeltary Sr. has added the following comment:
"According to the World Health Organisation, the future public health threat of vCJD in the UK and Europe and potentially the rest of the world is of concern and currently unquantifiable. However, the possibility of a significant and geographically diverse vCJD epidemic occurring over the next few decades cannot be dismissed.
The key word here is diverse. What does diverse mean? If USA scrapie transmitted to USA bovine does not produce pathology as the UK c-BSE, then why would CJD from there look like UK vCJD?"
Prions: Protein Aggregation and Infectious Diseases
ADRIANO AGUZZI AND ANNA MARIA CALELLA Institute of Neuropathology, University Hospital of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
3. Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease Approximately 85% of all human prion diseases are sporadic forms of CJD. For sCJD, there is no association with a mutant PRNP allele, nor is there any epidemiological evidence for exposure to a TSE agent through contact with people or animals infected with TSEs. sCJD cases are currently subclassified according to the methionine/valine polymorphism at codon 129 of the PRNP gene and the size and glycoform ratio of proteaseresistant prion protein identified on western blot (type 1 or type 2) (174). Heterozygosity (Met/Val) at PrP codon 129 appears to be associated with a lower risk (378) and/or prolonged incubation time (119, 387). The lack of routine laboratory testing for preclinical diagnosis makes the search for agent sources and other risk factors extremely difficult. At present, the means of acquisition of a TSE agent in these patients remains a mystery. So far, there is no evidence for spontaneous PrPSc formation in any animal or human TSE. In humans, the peak age incidence of sporadic CJD is 55–60 years. However, if spontaneous misfolding were the primary event, one might expect a continuously increasing incidence with age because more time would allow more opportunity for rare misfolding events.
Perspectives BIOMEDICINE: A Fresh Look at BSE Bruce Chesebro*
Mad cow disease, or bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), is the cattle form of a family of progressive brain diseases. These diseases include scrapie in sheep, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in humans, and chronic wasting disease (CWD) in deer and elk. They are also known as either "prion diseases" because of the association of a misfolded cellular prion protein in pathogenesis or "transmissible spongiform encephalopathies" (TSEs) because of the spongelike nature of the damaged brain tissue (1).
The recent discovery of two BSE-infected cows, one in Canada and one in the United States, has dramatically increased concern in North America among meat producers and consumers alike over the extent to which BSE poses a threat to humans as well as to domestic and wild animals. The European BSE epidemic of the late-1980s seems to have been initiated a decade earlier in the United Kingdom by changes in the production of meat and bone meal (MBM) from rendered livestock, which led to contamination of MBM with the BSE infectious agent. Furthermore, the fact that UK farmers fed this rendered MBM to younger animals and that this MBM was distributed to many countries may have contributed to the ensuing BSE epidemic in the United Kingdom and internationally (2).
Despite extensive knowledge about the spread of BSE through contaminated MBM, the source of BSE in Europe remains an unsolved mystery (2). It has been proposed that BSE could be derived from a cross-species infection, perhaps through contamination of MBM by scrapie-infected sheep tissues (see the figure). Alternatively, BSE may have been an endemic disease in cattle that went unnoticed because of its low level of horizontal transmission. Lastly, BSE might have originated by "spontaneous" misfolding of the normal cellular prion protein into the disease-associated abnormal isoform (3), which is postulated to be the infectious agent or "prion."
Five possible sources of BSE in North American cattle. Sheep, deer, and elk could spread prion diseases (TSEs) to cattle through direct animal contact or contamination of pastures. Endemic BSE has not been proven to exist anywhere in the world, but it is difficult to exclude this possibility because of the inefficient spread of BSE infectivity between individual animals (2). BSE caused by spontaneous misfolding of the prion protein has not been proven. CREDIT: KATHARINE SUTLIFF/SCIENCE
Nevertheless, the idea that BSE might originate due to the spontaneous misfolding of prion proteins has received renewed interest in the wake of reports suggesting the occurrence of atypical BSE (9-11). These results imply that new strains of cattle BSE might have originated separately from the main UK outbreak. Where and how might such strains have originated? Although such rare events cannot be studied directly, any number of sources of the original BSE strain could also explain the discovery of additional BSE strains in cattle (see the figure). However, it would be worrisome if spontaneous BSE were really a valid etiology because such a mechanism would be impossible to prevent--unlike other possible scenarios that could be controlled by large-scale eradication of TSE-positive animals.
Another way to look at this problem is to examine evidence for possible spontaneous TSE disease in other animals besides cattle. Spontaneous BSE would be extremely difficult to detect in cattle, where horizontal spread is minimal. However, in the case of the sheep TSE disease, scrapie, which spreads from ewes to lambs at birth as well as between adults, spontaneous disease should be detectable as new foci of clinical infection. In the early 1950s scrapie was eradicated in both Australia and New Zealand, and the mainland of both these countries has remained scrapie-free ever since. This scrapie-free status is not the result of selection of sheep resistant to scrapie because sheep from New Zealand are as susceptible as their UK counterparts to experimental scrapie infection (12). These experiments of man and nature appear to indicate that spontaneous clinical scrapie does not occur in sheep. Similarly, because CWD is known to spread horizontally, the lack of CWD in the deer or elk of eastern North America but its presence in western regions would also argue against a spontaneous disease mechanism. This is particularly noteworthy in New Zealand, where there are large numbers of deer and elk farms and yet no evidence of spontaneous CWD. If spontaneous scrapie does not occur in sheep or deer, this would suggest that spontaneous forms of BSE and sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) are unlikely to be found in cattle or humans. The main caveat to this notion is that spontaneous disease may arise in some animal species but not others. In humans, sCJD--which is considered by some researchers to begin by spontaneous misfolding of the prion protein--usually takes more than 50 years to appear. Thus, in animals with a shorter life-span, such as sheep, deer, and cattle, an analogous disease mechanism might not have time to develop.
What can we conclude so far about BSE in North America? Is the BSE detected in two North American cows sporadic or spontaneous or both? "Sporadic" pertains to the rarity of disease occurrence. "Spontaneous" pertains to a possible mechanism of origin of the disease. These are not equivalent terms. The rarity of BSE in North America qualifies it as a sporadic disease, but this low incidence does not provide information about cause. For the two reported North American BSE cases, exposure to contaminated MBM remains the most likely culprit. However, other mechanisms are still possible, including cross-infection by sheep with scrapie or cervids with CWD, horizontal transmission from cattle with endemic BSE, and spontaneous disease in individual cattle. Based on our understanding of other TSEs, the spontaneous mechanism is probably the least likely. Thus, "idiopathic" BSE--that is, BSE of unknown etiology--might be a better term to describe the origin of this malady. ...
Transcript of Remarks From Technical Briefing on BSE and Related Issues With Agriculture Secretary Ann M. Veneman and USDA Chief Veterinary Officer Dr. Ron DeHaven Washington D.C. - March 15, 2004
OPERATOR : “Yes. Our next one is coming from Elizabeth Weiss. Please state your company.”
ELIZABETH WEISS: “This is Elizabeth Weiss with USA Today.”
“I actually had two questions. First off, when you say you're looking for 1 in 10,000 cases, is USDA doing any work to find out the possibility of whether or not BSE exists in a spontaneous form in the way that it does in humans and elk populations?
“And secondly, how will any of this fit into some of the consternation that's been raised in California and with the Midwest packer that wanted to test all of its cattle?
DR. DEHAVEN: “All right. I think we've got three different questions in there, and I'll try to touch on each one of them.
“First of all, let me correct just a technical issue, and that is you mentioned 1 in 10,000. And actually our surveillance system currently is designed, the one that we have in place now is designed to detect 1 positive in 1 million cattle, and I gave some numbers between 200,000 and 268,000 that would allow us to detect 1 in 10 million as opposed to 1 in 10,000.
“So we would, if we were able to collect in the ballpark of those numbers of samples then we with increasing numbers of samples have an increasingly statistically valid sample from which to determine, one, whether or not the disease exists and, if so, at what prevalence level.
“So our real emphasis is to test as many of those animals as we can, ensure that we get an appropriate geographical distribution, but not setting a specific number as far as a target. Again, consistent with the recommendation from the International Review Team, their recommendation was to test all of them.
“So that's consistent with where we're going is to test as many as we possibly can.
“As far as spontaneous cases, that is a very difficult issue. There is no evidence to prove that spontaneous BSE occurs in cattle; but here again it's an issue of proving a negative. We do know that CJD, the human version of the disease, does occur spontaneously in humans at the rate of about 1 in 1 million. We don't have enough data to definitively say that spontaneous cases of BSE in cattle occur or do not occur.
“Again, it's a very difficult situation to prove a negative.
“So a lot of research is ongoing. Certainly if we do come up with any positive samples in the course of this surveillance we will be looking at that question in evaluating those samples but no scientifically hard evidence to confirm or refute whether or not spontaneous cases of BSE occur.
Matthews confirmed that the brain tissue samples from the US animal had arrived at Weybridge. Test results were likely to be ready by the end of next week, he said.
The suspect animal has already undergone a series of tests. A rapid screening test on Nov. 15 returned inconclusive results. Sophisticated immunohistochemistry (IHC) tests cleared the animal of any infection, but a third round of testing using a Western blot procedure showed a "weak positive".
Weybridge will do an IHC test plus three kinds of Western Blot tests on the samples. They will use "methods of slightly different analytical sensitivity that give us the greatest number of opportunities to interpret what we see," he said.
US beef industry leaders say scientists should not speculate about the unusual case.
"There's no evidence that it's atypical ... and there's absolutely no evidence that it's spontaneous," said Gary Weber, head of regulatory affairs at the National Cattlemen's Beef Association.
Matthews noted scientists are still grappling with what is typical and atypical BSE.
"Far too few people have looked at BSE in depth using all of the tests to be able to define 'this is normal and that one isn't'," he said.
Weber noted Japan used the term to describe two very young infected cattle because BSE is usually found in older animals. Italy labeled a case "atypical" because the misshaped prions were found in unexpected parts of the animal's brain. ...
PLEASE be aware, for 4 years, the USDA fed our children all across the Nation dead stock downer cows, the most high risk cattle for BSE aka mad cow disease and other dangerous pathogens. who will watch our children for CJD for the next 5+ decades ???
Subject: Re: [CJD-L] UPDATE - CJD TEXAS 38 YEAR OLD FEMALE WORKED SLAUGHTERING CATTLE EXPOSED TO BRAIN AND SPINAL CORD MATTER
Helane Shields also wrote the Government about this case (Thanks), only to recieve the same BSe i got ;
United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service Washington. D.C. 20250 MAY 19, 2010
Dear Sir or Madam:
Thank you for your April 21, 2010, e-mail to the Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) regarding allegations that a former slaughterhouse worker died from variant Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease (vCJD).
FSIS is the public health regulatory agency in USDA responsible for ensuring that meat, poultry, and processed egg products are safe, wholesome, and accurately labeled. FSIS enforces the Federal Meat Inspection Act, the Poultry Products Inspection Act, and the Egg Products Inspection Act, which require Federal inspection and regulation of meat, poultry, and processed egg products prepared for distribution in commerce for use as human food.
FSIS 'has not been informed that this death resulted from an occupational exposure. You may wish to contact the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) at firstname.lastname@example.org. We share your concerns about vCJD-a rare, degenerative, fatal brain disorder in humans. Although not scientifically proven, there is strong epidemiologic and laboratory data linking vCJD to the consumption of beef contaminated with Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE). For questions concerning vCJD, or any specific human disease, you may also wish to visit the CDC. Web site at http://www.cdc.gov. A fact sheet on vCJD is available at http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvrd/vcjd/factsheet_nvcjd.htm additional information at http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvrd/vcjd.
You may also visit the World Health Organization (WHO) Web site at http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs180/en/. WHO is the directing and coordinating authority for health within the United Nations system. For more information on BSE, please visit the FSIS Web site at http://www.fsis.usda.gov/Fact_Sheets/Bovine_Spongiform_Encephalopathy_Mad_Cow_Disease/index.asp and http://www.fsis.usda.gov/Fact_Sheets/Bovine_Spongiform_Encephalopathy_BSE/index.asp.
Again, thank you for writing.
David P. Goldman, M.D., M.P.H. Assistant Administrator Office of Public Health Science
----- Original Message ----- From: "Terry S. Singeltary Sr." To: Sent: Monday, April 05, 2010 1:53 PM Subject: [CJD-L] UPDATE - CJD TEXAS 38 YEAR OLD FEMALE WORKED SLAUGHTERING CATTLE EXPOSED TO BRAIN AND SPINAL CORD MATTER
----- Original Message ----- From: Katie Glisic To: Terry S. Singeltary Sr. Sent: Monday, April 05, 2010 7:39 AM Subject: Re: [cjdsurv] CJD TEXAS 38 YEAR OLD FEMALE WORKED SLAUGHTERING CATTLE EXPOSED TO BRAIN AND SPINAL CORD MATTER
Dear Mr. Singelteary,
Thank you for contacting the Center. We are aware of Ms. Andablo's case and are in the process of testing, however thank you very much for the enclosed information. As you are aware, there have been no confirmed cases of vCJD (Mad Cow) contracting in the United States. The Center has been testing and diagnosing cases of CJD for over 10 years and reporting our findings to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Of the two cases we have documented, neither was contracting in the US. One was contracted in the UK where cases of Mad Cow are known and one was contracted in Saudi Arabia.
Please note, we also performed the testing on Ms. Vinson and her family is well informed of the diagnosis provided by the Center. The United States government as well as the USDA go to great lengths to ensure that the US beef consumed by our country is both safe and continually tested to prevent outbreaks of food born illnesses such as Mad Cow. Please rest assured that Dr. Gambetti and the rest of the Center's researchers work tirelessly to provide accurate diagnosis to families with loved ones suffering from CJD.
On Fri, Apr 2, 2010 at 12:38 PM, Terry S. Singeltary Sr. wrote:
Greetings Professor Gambetti Sir,
A kind greetings from sunny Bacliff, Texas !
Sadly, i thought i should pass this data to you. You are probably much aware of this, but it seems odd that no media has commented? also, the last suspect nvCJD case i remember here in the USA, it was the USDA that the so called 'confidentiality agreements between family', and came out officially first and over ruled the nvCJD and called in sporadic CJD, well, i don't think they ever even officially called it that, but Aretha N. Vinson family knows what she had, and PD Notebook won in the end ;
Portsmouth woman did not die of mad cow-related condition, ___USDA___ says
Professor Gambetti Sir, Thank You for your continued work on TSE and all. ....
Kindest Regard and very Respectfully,
Terry S. Singeltary Sr. P.O. Box 42 Bacliff, Texas USA 77518
CJD TEXAS 38 YEAR OLD FEMALE WORKED SLAUGHTERING CATTLE EXPOSED TO BRAIN AND SPINAL CORD MATTER
Up until about 6 years ago, the pt worked at Tyson foods where she worked on the assembly line, slaughtering cattle and preparing them for packaging. She was exposed to brain and spinal cord matter when she would euthanize the cattle. <<<
Irma Linda Andablo CJD Victim, she died at 38 years old on February 6, 2010 in Mesquite Texas
Irma Linda Andablo CJD Victim, she died at 38 years old on February 6, 2010 in Mesquite Texas.She left 6 Kids and a Husband.The Purpose of this web is to give information in Spanish to the Hispanic community, and to all the community who want's information about this terrible disease.-
Admit Date: 12/29/2009 Discharge Date: 1/20/2010 Attending Provider: Greenberg, Benjamin Morris; General Neurology Team: General Neurology Team
Linda was a Hispanic female with no past medical history presents with 14 months of incresing/progressive altered mental status, generalized weakness, inability to walk, loss of appetite, inability to speak, tremor and bowel/blader incontinence.She was, in her usual state of health up until February, 2009, when her husbans notes that she began forgetting things like names and short term memories. He also noticed mild/vague personality changes such as increased aggression. In March, she was involved in a hit and run MVA,although she was not injured. The police tracked her down and ticketed her. At that time, her son deployed to Iraq with the Army and her husband assumed her mentation changes were due to stress over these two events. Also in March, she began to have weakness in her legs, making it difficult to walk. Over the next few months, her mentation and personality changes worsened, getting to a point where she could no longer recognized her children. She was eating less and less. She was losing more weight. In the last 2-3 months, she reached the point where she could not walk without an assist, then 1 month ago, she stopped talking, only making grunting/aggressive sounds when anyone came near her. She also became both bowel and bladder incontinent, having to wear diapers. Her '"tremor'" and body jerks worsened and her hands assumed a sort of permanent grip position, leading her family to put tennis balls in her hands to protect her fingers.
The husband says that they have lived in Nebraska for the past 21 years. They had seen a doctor there during the summer time who prescribed her Seroquel and Lexapro, Thinking these were sx of a mood disorder. However, the medications did not help and she continued to deteriorate clinically. Up until about 6 years ago, the pt worked at Tyson foods where she worked on the assembly line, slaughtering cattle and preparing them for packaging. She was exposed to brain and spinal cord matter when she would euthanize the cattle. The husband says that he does not know any fellow workers with a similar illness. He also says that she did not have any preceeding illness or travel.
>>> Up until about 6 years ago, the pt worked at Tyson foods where she worked on the assembly line, slaughtering cattle and preparing them for packaging. She was exposed to brain and spinal cord matter when she would euthanize the cattle. <<<
Irma Linda Andablo, victima de CJD
"...padeció durante un año de CJD Esporádico, Falleció a la edad de 38 años en la ciudad de Mesquite Texas un 6 de Febrero del año 2010" Irma Linda Martinez nació en el pueblo de Batesville Texas un 17 de mayo de 1971, padeció durante un año de CJD Esporádico (mal de la vaca loca conocido en español) Falleció a la edad de 38 años en la ciudad de Mesquite Texas un 6 de Febrero del año 2010. A continuación describiremos datos de su padecimiento: Se casó a la edad de 16 años con Everardo Andablo (Lalo) ella residió en Lexington Nebraska, desde ese entonces, trabajó aproximadamente 11 años en una compañia de matanza de vacas y procesadora de carne (Tyson) ella trabajaba en el rastro o el área de matanza, para el 2008 ella trabajaba como agente de seguridad para esta misma compañia, para ese entonces ella empezó a presentar cambios en su vida, su próximo trabajo fue en Subway dentro de una tienda comercial, donde los cambios de salud empezaron a ser muy notorios pues empezó a perder mucho peso, de 237 L de su peso normal empezó perdiendo 24 L en menos de un mes, esto era sorprendente!!! fué entonces cuando dejó el trabajo en febrero del 2009, de repente empezó a olvidar datos importantes. La siguiente información es una traducción pertenece al comunicado que el equipo de neurologia del hospital Parkland en la ciudad de Dallas Texas liberó a su salida, después de haber estado internada del 29 de diciembre del 2009 a enero 20 del 2010, en este comunicado se encuentra el historial tanto médico como de sintomas presentados en Linda: Physician Discharge Summary : (traducido y adaptado) "...Mujer de 38 años presento 10 meses de una estado mental progresivo y alterado, con debilidad general, temblor, inhabilidad para caminar, para hablar, con pérdida de apetito e incontinencia de esfínteres, ella empezó a mostrar debilidad en las piernas, durante los siguientes meses su estado mental se agravó al tanto que ella no conoció más a sus propios hijos" "El 29 de Diciembre del 2009 Fué admitida en el Hospital Parkland de Dallas por demencia de acuerdo a los síntomas de presentaba, Mujer de 38 años presentó 14 meses de una estado mental progresivo y alterado, con debilidad general, temblor, inhabilidad para caminar, para hablar, con pérdida de apetito e incontinencia de esfinteres. Ella empezó a olvidar los nombres de las personas que la rodeaban, datos importantes personales, también presentó algunos cambios de personalidad como incremento de agresión.Para el mes de Marzo del 2008 ella empezó a mostrar debilidad en las piernas, durante los siguientes meses su estado mental se agravó al tanto que ella no conoció más a sus propios hijos (6 hijos), ella cada vez comia menos, cada vez perdia más peso.Para el tiempo que ella arrivo a Dallas para la navidad del 2009 ella no caminaba en lo absoluto, no hablaba solo hacia sonidos agresivos cuando alguien se acercaba a ella, el temblor en sus manos empezó a ser más fuerte, sus manos solo tenian posición de sostener algo fuerte, ella siempre.
"...padeció durante un año de CJD Esporádico, Falleció a la edad de 38 años en la ciudad de Mesquite Texas un 6 de Febrero del año 2010"
Irma Linda Martinez nació en el pueblo de Batesville Texas un 17 de mayo de 1971, padeció durante un año de CJD Esporádico (mal de la vaca loca conocido en español) Falleció a la edad de 38 años en la ciudad de Mesquite Texas un 6 de Febrero del año 2010.
A continuación describiremos datos de su padecimiento:
Se casó a la edad de 16 años con Everardo Andablo (Lalo) ella residió en Lexington Nebraska, desde ese entonces, trabajó aproximadamente 11 años en una compañia de matanza de vacas y procesadora de carne (Tyson) ella trabajaba en el rastro o el área de matanza, para el 2008 ella trabajaba como agente de seguridad para esta misma compañia, para ese entonces ella empezó a presentar cambios en su vida, su próximo trabajo fue en Subway dentro de una tienda comercial, donde los cambios de salud empezaron a ser muy notorios pues empezó a perder mucho peso, de 237 L de su peso normal empezó perdiendo 24 L en menos de un mes, esto era sorprendente!!! fué entonces cuando dejó el trabajo en febrero del 2009, de repente empezó a olvidar datos importantes.
La siguiente información es una traducción pertenece al comunicado que el equipo de neurologia del hospital Parkland en la ciudad de Dallas Texas liberó a su salida, después de haber estado internada del 29 de diciembre del 2009 a enero 20 del 2010, en este comunicado se encuentra el historial tanto médico como de sintomas presentados en Linda:
Physician Discharge Summary : (traducido y adaptado)
"...Mujer de 38 años presento 10 meses de una estado mental progresivo y alterado, con debilidad general, temblor, inhabilidad para caminar, para hablar, con pérdida de apetito e incontinencia de esfínteres, ella empezó a mostrar debilidad en las piernas, durante los siguientes meses su estado mental se agravó al tanto que ella no conoció más a sus propios hijos"
"El 29 de Diciembre del 2009 Fué admitida en el Hospital Parkland de Dallas por demencia de acuerdo a los síntomas de presentaba, Mujer de 38 años presentó 14 meses de una estado mental progresivo y alterado, con debilidad general, temblor, inhabilidad para caminar, para hablar, con pérdida de apetito e incontinencia de esfinteres. Ella empezó a olvidar los nombres de las personas que la rodeaban, datos importantes personales, también presentó algunos cambios de personalidad como incremento de agresión.Para el mes de Marzo del 2008 ella empezó a mostrar debilidad en las piernas, durante los siguientes meses su estado mental se agravó al tanto que ella no conoció más a sus propios hijos (6 hijos), ella cada vez comia menos, cada vez perdia más peso.Para el tiempo que ella arrivo a Dallas para la navidad del 2009 ella no caminaba en lo absoluto, no hablaba solo hacia sonidos agresivos cuando alguien se acercaba a ella, el temblor en sus manos empezó a ser más fuerte, sus manos solo tenian posición de sostener algo fuerte, ella siempre portaba pelotas pequeñas para que no se lastimara con sus propias uñas"
En terminos Médicos ella prensento un desorden mental con ansiedad y pérdida del habla y contracciones en los musculos que la inmobilizaba. Esto llevo a los médicos a predecir el diagnostico de CJD esporádico o variante, después de reuniones familiares se llego al acuerdo de no proseguir con los exámenes indicados como una biopsia cerebral debido al estado de debilidad y gravedad de ella, pues peligraba su vida y por consiguiente peligraban los médicos que le aplicarian el exámen ya que es demasiado contagioso.
Ella fué dada de alta con el diagnostico de CJD Esporádico, sin medicamento y con pocas esperanzas y semanas de vida.
YOU can be assured they are squirming behind closed doors, and that they are doing there best to squirm right out of this one. they will come up with something, international travel long ago, or some strange PRNP mutation that they might say like sporadic ffi ??? or a case of atypical case of inherited Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) ??? they will make up something. but it will be anything but BSE related here in the USA, in my opinion. sporadic FFI, or sporadic GSS, or sporadic inherited CJD is an oxymoron. it's either familial or not. or even this new novel human disease known as Protease-Sensitive Prionopathy (PSPr), they might come up with that. if they cannot do this, it will be an occupational TSE infection, whether they want to admit it or not. and they don't admit those to often, they cover them up. just like that Spanish Doctor that handled cjd infected tissue. but we never heard nothing about that one either ;
Investigator succumbs to CJD THE head of Pathological Anatomy at Principe de Asturias hospital in Alcala de Henares, Dr Antonio Ruiz Villaescusa, has died from Creutzfeldt-Jakob's disease. It is believed that Dr Ruiz, a specialist in CJD, contracted the disease after exposure to tissue from infected patients.
To date the OIE/WAHO assumes that the human and animal health standards set out in the BSE chapter for classical BSE (C-Type) applies to all forms of BSE which include the H-type and L-type atypical forms. This assumption is scientifically not completely justified and accumulating evidence suggests that this may in fact not be the case. Molecular characterization and the spatial distribution pattern of histopathologic lesions and immunohistochemistry (IHC) signals are used to identify and characterize atypical BSE. Both the L-type and H-type atypical cases display significant differences in the conformation and spatial accumulation of the disease associated prion protein (PrPSc) in brains of afflicted cattle. Transmission studies in bovine transgenic and wild type mouse models support that the atypical BSE types might be unique strains because they have different incubation times and lesion profiles when compared to C-type BSE. When L-type BSE was inoculated into ovine transgenic mice and Syrian hamster the resulting molecular fingerprint had changed, either in the first or a subsequent passage, from L-type into C-type BSE. In addition, non-human primates are specifically susceptible for atypical BSE as demonstrated by an approximately 50% shortened incubation time for L-type BSE as compared to C-type. Considering the current scientific information available, it cannot be assumed that these different BSE types pose the same human health risks as C-type BSE or that these risks are mitigated by the same protective measures.